The invention of the anthrax vaccine.

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Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis that primarily affects livestock but that can occasionally spread to humans, affecting either the skin, intestines, or lungs. In humans, the infection can often be treated, but it is almost always fatal in animals.


In 1881, the French scientist Louis Pasteur invented the anthrax vaccine by cultivating the bacteria at 108 degrees Fahrenheit (42.2 degrees Celsius)[2]. At this temperature, the bacteria were not able to form spores and hence couldn’t reproduce. When the animals were inoculated (introduced with live bacteria) with this, they formed immunity against healthy and live bacteria.

Photomicrograph of Bacillus anthracis
  • Here is a photograph of Louis Pasteur:
  • And here is a drawing of Pasteur inoculating a sheep against anthrax:

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