The electron dot structure (also called as the Lewis structure/ formula) is a molecular structure in which the valency electrons are shown as dots so placed between the bonded atoms that one pair of dots represents two electrons or one covalent (single) bond. A double bond is represented by two pairs of dots, etc.
The American chemist Gilbert Newton Lewis invented the electron dot structure in 1916 to illustrate his postulation of the covalent bond. Here are his original electron dot structures of water (H2O), hydrogen iodide (HI) and iodine (I2) respectively:
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Here is a photograph of Gilbert Newton Lewis:
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