The invention of synthetic chloroform.

definition

Chloroform (CHCl3) is a heavy volatile liquid with a sweet taste and odour, used as a solvent and cleansing agent and in refrigerants; formerly used as an inhalation anaesthetic[1].

INVENTION

A German pharmacist by the name of Moldenhawer synthesised chloroform in 1830 when he was trying to remove fusel alcohols from ethanol that was prepared from potatoes.

Fusel alcohol is a volatile, poisonous mixture of isoamyl, butyl, propyl, and heptyl alcohols produced as by-products in alcoholic fermentation of starches, grains, or fruits to produce ethanol[2].

However, he mistook the chloroform for “chloric ether” (1,2-dichloroethane) as these two compounds have a similar smell. Here is how[3] he synthesised chloroform:

  • 2.5 grams of chloride of lime were added to one litre of ethanol and the mixture was shook for 20-24 hours.
  • He then distilled the alcohol but found fusel alcohols in the distillate.
  • He noticed that after the shaking a strong smell was produced which he mistook for “chloric ether”.
INVENTOR

Not much is known about Moldenhawer other than what was mentioned.

SOURCES
  1. https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/chloroform
  2. https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/fusel+alcohol
  3. https://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1945871

 




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