The discovery of the cell wall.

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The cell wall is a thick, rigid coat formed outside the cell membrane of plants, fungi and most bacteria. It is responsible for the shape of the organism and for protecting the internal parts of the cell from damage[1].


The English polymath and architect Robert Hooke (1635-1703) discovered the cell wall in 1665. In his publication[2], he stated that “walls” enclose and constitute the cork cells that he had discovered. Here is a scan[2] of Hooke’s drawing of cork cells:

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No portrait of Robert Hooke has be found.

  2. /mode/2up, page 113 and one page after page 118.