Discoveries

Anion

DEFINITION An anion is a monoatomic or polyatomic species having one or more elementary charges of the electron[1]. DISCOVERY The English scientist Michael Faraday discovered[2] the anion in 1834 while analysing the electrochemical properties of electrolytic solutions. In an effort to create an electrochemical nomenclature, he says in his 1834 publication, “Finally, I require a …

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Fibrinogen

DEFINITION Fibrinogen is a protein in the blood plasma that is essential for the coagulation of blood and is converted to fibrin by the action of thrombin in the presence of ionised calcium[1]. It is also called “coagulation factor I”. DISCOVERY The Swedish physiologist Olof Hammarsten discovered[2] fibrinogen in 1877 after researching what substances in …

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Cation

DEFINITION A cation is a monoatomic or polyatomic species having one or more elementary charges of the proton[1]. DISCOVERY The English scientist Michael Faraday discovered[2] cations in 1834 while analysing the electrochemical properties of electrolytic solutions. In an effort to create an electrochemical nomenclature, he says in his 1834 publication, “Finally, I require a term …

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Fibrin

DEFINITION Fibrin is an elastic, insoluble, whitish protein produced by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen and forming an interlacing fibrous network in the coagulation of blood[1]. DISCOVERY The Italian biologist Marcello Malpighi discovered[2] fibrin in 1666 while examining washed blood clots under a microscope. In his publication[2] he describes the washed (to the point …

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Thrombocytus

DEFINITION The thrombocytus (more commonly known as the platelet/thrombocyte) is a minute, non-nucleated, disc-like cytoplasmic body found in the blood plasma of mammals that is derived from a megakaryocyte and functions to promote blood clotting[1]. DISCOVERY The German anatomist  Max Johann Sigismund Schultze discovered[2] platelets in 1865 while examining blood under a microscope. In his …

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Glutamic acid

DEFINITION Glutamic acid is a nonessential amino acid with the chemical formula C5H9NO4. It is used principally in the biosynthesis of proteins and an important metabolic intermediate[1]. DISCOVERY The German chemist Karl Heinrich Leopold Ritthausen discovered[2] glutamic acid in 1866 while experimenting on wheat gluten. In his publication[2], he explains the method by which he …

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Tyrosine

DEFINITION Tyrosine is a nonessential amino acid with the chemical formula C9H11NO3. It is produced in the body from phenylalanine and is a precursor of melanin and of several neurotransmitters and hormones, such as epinephrine and thyroxine[1]. DISCOVERY The German chemist Justus Freiherr von Liebig discovered[2] tyrosine in 1846 while experimenting with cheese. In his …

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Histidine

DEFINITION Histidine is a naturally occuring essential amino acid with the chemical formula C6H9N3O2. It is necessary for tissue growth and repair[1]. DISCOVERY The German biochemist Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel discovered[2] histidine in 1896 while studying sturine (a protamine in the spermatozoa of sturgeon). Here is how he isolated histidine from it: He …

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Ruthenium

DEFINITION Ruthenium is a metallic chemical element with the symbol Ru, atomic number 44 and atomic weight 101.07. It is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal with a close-packed hexagonal crystalline structure. Ruthenium is usually alloyed with other metals; with palladium as a hardener and with titanium to improve its corrosion resistance. It is also used …

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Mitosis

DEFINITION Mitosis is the ordinary process of cell division resulting in the formation of two daughter cells, by which the body replaces dead cells. The daughter cells have identical diploid complements of chromosomes (46 in human somatic cells). Mitosis occurs in four main phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. The period between mitotic divisions is …

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