Fauzan Khattak

Wheelbarrow

DEFINITION A wheelbarrow is a small, hand-pushed vehicle with a single wheel and axle between the front ends of two shafts that support a boxlike body and serve as handles at the rear[1]. INVENTION The wheelbarrow was invented[2] in China circa 118. Here is a Han dynasty-era brick[3] showing a wheelbarrow being used: Here is …

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Fibrinogen

DEFINITION Fibrinogen is a protein in the blood plasma that is essential for the coagulation of blood and is converted to fibrin by the action of thrombin in the presence of ionised calcium[1]. It is also called “coagulation factor I”. DISCOVERY The Swedish physiologist Olof Hammarsten discovered[2] fibrinogen in 1877 after researching what substances in …

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Voltaic pile

DEFINITION The voltaic pile is an early form of primary battery, consisting of alternate pairs of dissimilar metal discs with moistened pads between pairs[1]. It was the first electrochemical battery that could continuously provide an electric current to a circuit. INVENTION The Italian scientist Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta invented[2] the voltaic pile in 1800 …

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Cation

DEFINITION A cation is a monoatomic or polyatomic species having one or more elementary charges of the proton[1]. DISCOVERY The English scientist Michael Faraday discovered[2] cations in 1834 while analysing the electrochemical properties of electrolytic solutions. In an effort to create an electrochemical nomenclature, he says in his 1834 publication, “Finally, I require a term …

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Fibrin

DEFINITION Fibrin is an elastic, insoluble, whitish protein produced by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen and forming an interlacing fibrous network in the coagulation of blood[1]. DISCOVERY The Italian biologist Marcello Malpighi discovered[2] fibrin in 1666 while examining washed blood clots under a microscope. In his publication[2] he describes the washed (to the point …

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Thrombocytus

DEFINITION The thrombocytus (more commonly known as the platelet/thrombocyte) is a minute, non-nucleated, disc-like cytoplasmic body found in the blood plasma of mammals that is derived from a megakaryocyte and functions to promote blood clotting[1]. DISCOVERY The German anatomist  Max Johann Sigismund Schultze discovered[2] platelets in 1865 while examining blood under a microscope. In his …

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Mercury sphygmomanometer

DEFINITION The mercury sphygmomanometer is an instrument for determining arterial blood pressure indirectly by using a column of mercury to indicate the pressure[1]. INVENTION The Austrian physician Samuel Siegfried Karl von Basch invented[2] the mercury sphygmomanometer in 1881 while experimenting with ways to make blood pressure measurement more convenient and accurate. Here is an animation …

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Sphygmograph

DEFINITION A sphygmograph is an instrument consisting of a lever, the short end of which rests on the radial artery at the wrist, and the long end being provided with a stylet that records on a moving ribbon of paper the movements, form, and force of the arterial pulse[1]. INVENTION The German physiologist Karl von …

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